Liquor, especially strong liquor, is generally absorbed into various tissue organs in the body through the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach and intestinal mucosa, and can appear in the blood in 5 minutes. When it reaches 30-60 minutes, the alcohol concentration in the blood can reach the highest point. The absorption rate of drinking on an empty stomach is much higher than that on a full stomach. The stomach can absorb 10-20% of wine and the small intestine can absorb 75-80%. 60% of the wine consumed at one time can be absorbed within one hour and all can be absorbed within two hours.
Alcohol is oxidized and excreted slowly in the human body, so it accumulates in the blood and tissues after being absorbed (the alcohol concentration in brain tissue is 10 times that in blood). Most alcohol is mainly metabolized in the liver, and only a small amount (about 2% ~ 10%) of alcohol is not oxidized. It is directly discharged from the urine through the kidney, exhaled from the respiratory tract through the lung, or evaporated through the skin sweat gland. Therefore, the alcohol concentration of a person's exhaled gas is far lower than the actual alcohol concentration in the body.
In the process of alcohol metabolism, it will also be accompanied by the change of the ratio of NADH to NAD (NAD is a cofactor and hydrogen acceptor), the decrease of galactose tolerance, the increase of triglyceride synthesis, the increase of lipid peroxidation and other complex changes. Therefore, clinically, there have been episodes of hypoglycemia and gout after drinking, and the triglyceride level of people who drink too much for a long time is often high.
Next, the absorption and metabolism of alcohol are introduced in detail.
1： Absorption of alcohol in the stomach.
1. The higher the degree of alcohol, the faster the absorption rate.
(1) When the alcohol concentration is less than 10%, the alcohol is diluted and absorbed less by gastric juice;
(2) Alcoholic beverages containing 15% ~ 30% alcohol absorb faster
(3) More than 30% can cause bleeding and erosion of gastric mucosa.
2. Different wines have different absorption rates.
(1) Baijiu is a fermented wine. Alcohol other than alcohol can slow down the movement and blood flow of the stomach and delay the absorption of alcohol.
(2) Beer is a sparkling wine. It contains CO2 gas, which stimulates the movement of the stomach and makes the migration and absorption to the small intestine faster.
Countermeasures: drinking white water (not tea) can reduce the concentration of alcohol in the stomach and reduce the absorption of alcohol.
3. Food affects the absorption of alcohol.
Like a sponge, the food in the stomach absorbs a large amount of alcohol, reduces the alcohol concentration in the stomach, reduces the contact with the gastric mucosa, slows down the transfer of alcohol to the small intestine, and delays the absorption of alcohol. The type of food also has an impact. When mixed with milk with an appropriate proportion of protein, sugar and fat, the absorption rate of alcohol slows down, and the excretion of solid food is delayed compared with liquid food, so the absorption of alcohol is also slow.
Countermeasures: eating some food before drinking, especially plant food, can reduce the harm of alcohol.
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